The distinction With cross-country Shock Absorbers

Off-road driving creates an entire set of distinctive necessities for shock absorbers. You essentially wish constant characteristics cross-country, as you are doing in railcar dampers; management permanently cornering and as comfy a ride as doable. However, within the case of cross-country driving, you furthermore mght wish smart suspension flex.

Lifted 4X4s, that have abundant heavier tires, build up additional heat. And if you’re coming up with on driving at high speeds, as within the case of desert sport, then your shock absorbers square measure operating that abundant tougher, inflicting far more heat.


This heat buildup results in some of necessities within the shocks you would like for your upraised 4X4. each square measure associated with adding additional oil to the shock. If the oil within the shock overheats, it will foam and breakdown. once this happens, the shock will not do the duty it absolutely was supposed for.

The first distinction with 4X4 shock absorbers is that they have abundant larger bodies. The length is additionally magnified for upraised vehicles, however the diameter of the shock body is magnified conjointly, looking on the house obtainable underneath the vehicle, to extend the quantity of oil it will hold.

The second thanks to increase the amount of oil is to feature a far off oil reservoir. this feature was created specifically for cross-country sport, and has become a preferred resolution for all sorts of 4X4s.

A remote reservoir permits you to use a smaller diameter cushion body, whereas still increasing the amount of oil by having it control during a separate reservoir that’s connected to the shock by a hose or tube. The separate oil reservoir conjointly permits for higher chilling.

Coilover Shock

A coilover shock may be a style of shock you’ll typically see on changed 4X4s. this kind of shock combines a cushion with a spring dead one unit. they’re well-liked in custom setups as a result of you’ll be able to mix each parts whereas mistreatment constant quantity of house.

Coilover shocks conjointly modify the utilization of longer springs than a standard spring suspension as a result of the springs square measure utterly contained. you’ll be able to amendment springs simply to alter the stress of the spring, or the “frequency” because it is termed.

You can conjointly add springs for a twin or triple-rate spring by adding additional springs with totally different frequencies on the coilover assembly. this may provide you with a softer ride for the primary few inches of compression, and a additional aggressive spring frequency for things once the suspension travel is on the far side the conventional vary.

Almost all current light pickup trucks go with coilover shocks direct from the mill. This has created a chance for ancient shock corporations to supply a mixture of associate improved damper and a carry in one element.

Shock valving

Shock valving is sometimes built specifically for every individual application. as an example, a high-quality cushion to suit a truck that is upraised six inches has been device to accommodate the larger tires and handling characteristics of that vehicle.

Some shocks conjointly go with user-adjustable valving. this permits you to melt the shocks once desired, like rock travel. And tighten them for towing or general road driving.

New Technology in Tyres

Tyres do not appear even remotely complicated on the surface. Rubber, steel belts and air, not a lot of technology concerned here, right? this might are the case decades agone, particularly with regard to the buyer market, however it’s not the case to any extent further, not by a photo.

In recent years tyre makers are implementing utterly new ideas in tire construction. These ideas produce a lot of sturdy, higher performance and safer product that square measure equally as necessary as the other advancement in cars.

This article can review a number of the latest advancements in tyre technology additionally because the styles and engineering principles that square measure expected to become trade standards within the close to future.

Advances in gas Tyres

Pneumatic tyres square measure the trade customary for all shopper vehicles. Early rubber tyres were solid, however, ever since John Dunlop designed the primary pneumatic tire in 1888, the globe embraced this type of tyre, in spite of the sturdiness of solid rubber, they were downright uncomfortable.

In about 455 factories round the world over one billion tyres square measure created each year containing identical basic ingredients; rubber, smut and varied chemicals.

Tyres square measure created on a drum and cured in an exceedingly press beneath heat and pressure. the warmth creates a polymerisation reaction that links the rubber monomers and creates long elastic molecules. this enables the tyres to compress wherever the rubber meets the road and so reform to their original form.

Different makers uses their own compounds to deliver a mixture of sturdiness and performance. However, most tyres all begin out identical manner.

Digital Tyres

Tyre manufacturer Pirelli has been testing “digital tyres” on the Ferrari FXX K supercar to gather information concerning constant of friction, footprint and pavement grade. This info is then transferred to the car’s european and also the traction management systems to optimize power delivery supported grip.

Evolving Tyres

Michelin has created some terribly spectacular developments within the longevity of tyre wear. The tire manufacturer has fictitious a tyre that may evolve because it wears out, conserving its road-gripping performance till the bitter finish.

This new technology uses main tread grooves that get wider as they upset, feat many area for water to still escape. The new tyres have small slices that expand into teardrop shapes and atone for having shallower grooves, creating the tyres safer as they age.

Self-inflating Technology

Self-inflating tyres for the buyer market are being presently explored. This technology is already getting used for serious machinery and military vehicles, and uses sensors that live the tyre pressure. If the pressure drops too low, associate compressor inflates the tyre, if the air is just too high, a pressure escape cock deflates it.

Airless Tyres

Hankook has been experimenting with a tyre style that does not need air. One of, if not the largest drawbacks to gas tyres has forever been punctures and leaks. The new “iFlex” tyres square measure being made of utterly eco-friendly materials.

The tyre manufacturer has been operating with geometric shapes, in situ of air, to supply pliable, bouncy qualities of a typical tyre. once tested for sturdiness, hardness, stability, slalom and speed the Hankook NPT (non-pneumatic tyres) performed cherish ancient full tyres.

As long as flying cars do not become commonplace within the next decade, expect to ascertain some pretty fascinating tyre technology hit the road.

Tyre Empire sells varied styles of tyre in Sydney additionally as provides varied services like ever-changing spark plugs and filter, commutation filter, checking battery and brakes, wheel alignment and checking suspension.

A automobile business organization Is quite simply A vender

The present franchised automobile business organization business model has profited consumers, makers, and resident populations for nearly one hundred years. it’s sustained by each dealers and makers because the finest and best thanks to purchase, sell, service, and finance cars within the marketplace. The National Automobile Dealers Association’s “Get the Facts” sets the record straight concerning however the franchise technique edges shoppers everywhere America.

Cars square measure comparatively pricey and varied, and customers trust automobile business organization staff to assist after they have an interest in shopping for a vehicle. Their goal is to sell cars that meet the stress of their customers. Their primary goal is to sell vehicles, however to be effective within the public, dealers conjointly facilitate their native communities in numerous ways in which.


Local and nationwide charities profit greatly from dealer participation. this enables them to take advantage of meeting with new potential customers, however additional significantly, it permits the dealer to contribute to the goodwill of the community. By donating cash and time, the bourgeois becomes a significant a part of the community, not simply a merchandiser.

Community stretch opportunities square measure all over. Medical not-for-profit foundations supply yearly walks and runs to assist support their causes, like patient care and analysis. several automotive vendors support these nationwide events.

Sponsoring {a native|an area|a neighborhood} baseball league team or different youth programs has been a favourite of local businesses for several years. By supporting an area team, the seller shows that they’re actively involved the youngsters furthermore.

Many auto merchants conjointly facilitate support the homeless shelters in their space. By supporting all of those problems, the dealer shows their commitment to the complete district.

Services and coaching

Besides conducive to the community, your native motor vehicle dealer has one different operate, which is sexual union your vehicles. whether or not you would like a minor repair or a significant overhaul, they’re equipped and prepared to serve you. the bulk of automotive technicians square measure ASE certified. ASE is brief for the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. This institute could be a not-for-profit association that has increased the worth of motorcar overhaul and repair by difficult and certifying automotive specialists. ASE exists to guard not solely you the buyer, however conjointly the look owner and therefore the technician. They certify technicians to allow look house owners and automotive vendors a much better gauge on the technician’s level of coaching before doable hiring. This industry-wide certification guarantees that service technicians all have identical levels of coaching, in spite of at what certification level they’re certified on. ASE needs each technician to re-certify each 5 years.

So, in spite of if you are shopping for, selling, or would like repair, rest assured your native automobile business organization is ready to assist you. Contact them these days for any assist you might have.


Sometimes, we envy see any great couple who are so compact in public; and fantasize Could we and our spouse applies equally to the couple. However, sometimes, we do actually require couples to pursue the views of others that you and your partner are a couple terserasi in the world.

There are two tips to create a harmonious relationship.

1. Being Yourself

Sometimes, we ordered the pair to appear fashionable, not childish, elegant, and so on. We are not aware that these measures are not directly heartbreaking partner.

He considers us his drive and want to turn it into a strange figure. He can assume that during this time we tdak love, we just memeralatnya be “people we like” without us trying to be someone who loves too.

These are the important points. By demanding a lot of things, actually we do not respect ourselves couples. In fact, we are also not being yourself. We become self demanded by the concept of the public think that the mismatched pair must be such and such.

Make your partner is comfortable being himself, showing love in his own way, and make you, too. It did not take long, you will realize that you and your partner can perform matching without the need to pay attention to public view.

2. Seeking Perfection

There is a perfect man. He refused all women cover because he is looking for women who are similar to themselves. Then, when he found the perfect woman, she applied for the woman. However, what happens?

The woman said, “you’re looking for the perfect woman, as well as me. To me, you’re not a perfect man “.

Sometimes, we are demanding lover must do things perfectly. He should not be angry when we get angry, he should not cry when we yell, or he should not cuddle in public. These things are clearly torture couples. Moreover, if we memerlakukan otherwise. We get angry when angry, but do not tolerate if couples do the same.

In any case, the couple we are human, not a robot. Do not look for perfection if you can not be perfect. Is not the relationship will be more harmonious if each is to cover the shortfall, or consider it not important?
Mate or not the couple can be seen from it. People who are not destined to be always looking for faults to “punish” the couple. Instead, they are destined to be looking for goodness couples and grateful with what their attitude

Chronic heartburn

Ulcer is a disease that occurs in the stomach because the digestive system in the body is not good anymore caused by many factors (multifactorial). Broadly speaking, it can be concluded that ulcer disease can be caused by bacteria in foods that are not maintained hygiene, unhealthy lifestyle, and stress.

The symptoms of ulcer patients who felt the nausea, vomiting, bloating, belching, heartburn, stomach rumbling, early satiety, and often flue gas. If this lasts for a period of quite often, the disease can be categorized into chronic heartburn.

Many ways to know the state of the hull with clinical examinations such as ultrasound, endoscopy, x-rays and CT scans. From the investigation, we can see the type of heartburn suffered. Ulcer disease is classified into two parts, namely due to functional abnormalities and as a result of organic disorders.

Functional abnormalities in the suspect happens by several factors, among others stress, abnormal bowel movement (motility) of the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach and upper small intestine).

Meanwhile, an organic disorder thought to be caused by bacteria that can cause inflammation, red in the stomach, blisters, sores, polyps. In fact, tumor. Moreover, the worst situation may occur vomiting blood and blood BAB.

Ulcer disease should not always be left because if left unchecked the disease can cause ulcers (ulcers) and bleeding in the stomach. Some of the diseases that have been classified as chronic heartburn may increase the risk of gastric cancer, especially if our stomach wall thinning process occurs continuously.

As for other types of ulcer disease were found, which occurs as a result of the overflowing acid reflux to the esophagus (the tube between the mouth and stomach). The disease is commonly called the disease Gastroesfageal Reflux Disease (GERD).

Generally, it is felt that a GERD sufferer a burning sensation in the chest like a burning and felt a sour taste in the mouth rises up, belly bulge due to full gas from excess stomach acid, and then the gas out through belching or flatulence.

Finding out the type of ulcer disease suffered and treat it so as not to cause ulcers become severe are things that need to be done to heal the ulcer disease. In addition, to avoid the kind of food that is too hot, containing excess oil, spicy, sour, soft drinks, and drugs that do not fit a healthy lifestyle that must be maintained to ulcer recurrence or worsening.

Importance of Sport for Health Agency

Men there in corpora sano, in a healthy body there is a healthy soul! It is a slogan that really means in an effort to improve survival. That we live not only requires a healthy body, but also a healthy soul. Therefore, we need to understand the importance of exercise in maintaining our health.

There are major things that we need to keep in our lives, namely health. Health is very expensive because when we lose, then we have to pay large amounts of money. When we are sick, that’s when we understand how important it is for our health. In fact, to be able to obtain health was not difficult nor expensive.

So far, we often overlook the importance of sport for the health of our bodies. It can be seen from our lifestyle that is out of control. We’ve been ignoring healthy lifestyle which we use as a pattern of our lives. Too many activities that we have done so often forget and ignore the self-restructuring efforts. And, olahragapun never again we did.

Want Healthy, Make Exercise Routine!

If we were to ask someone related to health, they certainly want a life full of health. They do not want to lose health. However, their lifestyle did not reflect a healthy lifestyle. As a result, many of those who fall ill and even higher levels of pain on stage. Look healthy, but hollow inside.

Once again, the price of health care is very expensive. It could be a month’s salary we get from work, sold for the treatment of pain for a week, even a day. Therefore, since now we should change the lifestyle which we have adopted. Do things that are positive and avoid the negative things in life. And, as we know, to do positive things proved to be more difficult than doing negative things. As is the case for doing something healthy body weight is harder than damage physical health.

That pain is closely related to our lifestyle. Whenever we experience pain, then it is because our lifestyles are less healthy. For example, like smoking or drinking. Lifestyle like this is very harmful for our body. When we do these things, actually poisoning our bodies. So what happens if we poison our bodies all the time?

Preventive Measures Against Disease

There are a lot of people say that prevention is better than cure. That prevent us from falling ill, is much better than cure sick already settles in our bodies. And, it is in fact to keep from being sick a lot better than we have to treat the pain in our bodies.

And, one of the easiest ways to maintain good health is to exercise regularly. If this activity we do is intense, then we can know the importance of exercise for our health. If we exercise regularly, then our bodies will be maintained health.

By the time we exercise, so when that happens the burning of fat by the body heat. As a result, the fat under the skin or under the meat decompose and come out with sweat. If this continues to happen on a regular basis, then the fat in our body can be reduced to the maximum. Thus, we have been keeping the formation of fat in our bodies.

While we know that fat is an element that is very risky for the body because fat can cause the increasing elements that cause the disease. If we exercise routine, then health that we get. And, this means we have to take reasonable precautions against any diseases that may infect our bodies.

Sport is a means of Refreshing

Yes. Sport is a means of refreshing. By following a regular exercise and intense, then we are always fresh, fresh. This is because each of the veins of our body is always moving and working properly.

Movement of any part of the body is an organized effort oxidation process so that carbon monoxide can quickly react with oxygen. Thus, the oxygen can be transported to the heart and throughout the body.

At the time of oxygen delivered to all parts of the body, the blood becomes fresh and if the blood enters every tissue of the body, then the network is to be fresh because the blood containing oxygen.

On the other hand, when we follow the sport, in fact at that time we are conducting refreshing, refreshment on the condition themselves. This is because during exercise, there are many things we get. For example if the exercise carried out in the field, then we can enjoy the green grass or trees. And, we feel the freshness to it.

Concepts of Space & Time in English

general-buster-keaton1. Time

Till/until are used to refer mainly to time not place. “Before” can be used interchangeably with “till” to refer to time as well:

I won’t be seeing her until/before Monday.

2. Place

Sometimes, however, you can use them before a place name or a point in the sense of “till we get there”:

Go straight on until/till you get to the traffic lights.

I’ll wait until she gets here.

This was the poster’s original question. . This means the sentence quoted is correct.

3. Completion

They are used with perfect tenses to emphasize the idea of completion:

I will wait till you have finished.

4. Duration

Till/until can be replaced by „to“ if “from“ is used for duration:

From now to/till ten O’clock

5. Lateness

With a negative verb to emphasize “lateness”

She didn’t arrive till midnight.

Because of the interchangeable relationship between time and distance when traveling, the use of “till” and “until” for time-based distance is understandable: We don’t get off the bus until [the moment of:] Trafalgar Square. I think though that we should make clear that till and until are not appropriate for pure distance as in: It is four miles from here until Trafalgar Square, where to is the right choice of preposition. In a way it is like the time and space theory in physics. Both are related to each other. A specific distance covered necessarily implies the passage of a certain period of time and vice versa. So at a certain point both of them merge. You can’t tell the difference between them any more then. I think we need to pursue this topic further in other linguistic phenomena. It is fascinating. In physics time is only change of position in space.

The semantic rules of location and Source

The semantic rules of location, source and goal go beyond the field of space. Some verbs of movement (space/time) assimilate locative and predicative:


Get…..She got angry……………They got into the bus

Go……He went mad………………He went to hospital

Stay….He stayed calm………… He stayed outside

Drive…He drove them mad…… He drove them to the bank

Leave…He left me unmoved….They left me in the waiting room

Time Play

1. Time can be seen either as a point (at) or a period having a beginning and an end to demonstrate change and development (in)

In the beginning /at the beginning

In the end / at the end

2. In time /on time

If you are in time you are before the time whereas on time shows exactly the right time.

3. By/At

By can be either earlier or “at” at the latest.

Who comes first?

He comes at eight O’clock

She comes by eight O’clock

Time/space Play

1. Time/space with” at”:


At eight O’clock

At my aunt’s house.

2. Time/space with “in”:


In the morning

In my house

The play of gerund (retrospective view) and infinitive (prospective view) with time:

1. Remember:

Remember (1) to post (2) the letter. (Infinitive -Prospective view- remember in the present

I remember (2) posting (1) the letter yesterday. (Gerund – retrospective view – remember in the past.

2. Regret:

I regret (1) to tell (2) you we can’t hire you (Infinitive –prospective view)

She regrets (2) trusting (1) him. (Gerund – retrospective)

3. Forget:

I forgot (1) to phone (2) him (Infinitive – prospective view)

I will never forget (2) taking (1) my umbrella again. (Gerund – retrospective view)

4. Go on

She left her job and went on to found her own company (Infinitive: start something new/change of topic)

He had nothing in his bank account but went on spending money. (gerund: do the same/no change of topic.

Space/time and Culture


1. The concept of space/time is central in language

2. English is global spoken by people from different cultural backgrounds

Teachers need to understand the space/time concept of a relevant culture in order to be able to understand the problems encountered by their students. In particular the English tenses are seen as difficult to master. For example some students might find it difficult to understand the concept of present perfect (simple and continuous) in comparison with past simple. In addition English prepositions of place/time add up to the burden. Most questions are about tenses and prepositions as far as grammar is concerned.

The cultural concept of time and punctuality

Language and culture are deeply intertwined. Often the system of a language reflects its culture. This has to be considered when explaining grammar particularly tenses. However, the following concepts are changing or subject to change because of a variety of factors like: modern communication technologies, globalization…

1. Some cultures are past-oriented (Arabs). They put a high value on tradition, family, customs and religion. There is often only one present or future tense. This difference is also reflected in the idea of punctuality. You can be late 10-15 (France) for an appointment. In the Middle East appointments are made for a time of the day rather than a specific hour.

2. Other cultures are more interested in the present and future (USA). There are many present and future tenses in English. They tend to concentrate on development, changes and performance. It would be rude to be late (Japan, China)

Typical Mistakes

A typical mistake made by some students is to think that the English word „place“ can be applied to anything which refers to spatial dimension. In fact English has a variety of words which might correspond to only one word in their language. Take for instance the German word “Platz” which can replace the following six English words:

1. There is no parking space here – Not place.

2. You have more room/space in your house. – Not place

3. This is a nice place for me to live in – Place is OK

4. The football pitch – Not place

5. Tennis court – Not place

6. Is this seat taken- Place! Maybe

Which is more difficult German or English?

Time confusion with “since”:

1. True much depends upon the context, the speaker’s view and the meaning of “since”. Two functions of since: since as a preposition and as a conjunction of time. If the emphasis is on the point of departure (since being a preposition) something like: since 1998, the point of time is certainly past not present perfect.

2. In sentences about changes present continuous/simple can be used instead of present perfect in the main clause when since is used as preposition:

You are sleeping much better since your swimming course

She doesn’t phone since she got married.

3. Since can be used as a conjunction of time introducing its own clause, the tense can then be past or perfect:

I have known her since we were neighbours

I have known her since we have worked together.

4. If you refer to a finished point of time present perfect is used:

It is now a year since we have signed the agreement.

In a way phrases with “since” are like mixed conditionals. Nothing is straightforward. Nevertheless, its multiple functions make this little word interesting. Now draw a (time) line with since in the middle as follows:


The following configuration is possible:

1. As adverb of time – Present perfect (before) – past simple (after )

He has been ill since he started work

2. It can come in end position either alone or in collocation with ever. (present perfect)

I haven’t seen him since (ever since)

3. Since as a conjunction

– Present perfect simple/continuous before- past simple after

– Present simple before – present perfect after

– Past simple after – Present simple in the main clause

He has been working here since he moved house

Since in a clause can be followed by perfect tense:

It is ages since I have travelled by air.

Since I saw her I can’t stop thinking of her

4. Since – phrases can express temporal location or duration:

I have been lonely since you left (temporal location)

I have been here since three O’clock. (Duration

Time with “For”

In addition to a variety of other meanings, “For” can be used with past simple and present perfect depending upon its meaning:

I was in London for two days. (For measuring a complete period of time)

I have been in London for two days. (For measuring an incomplete period of time)

The Human concept of Time

First of all the concept of time is a human invention. In reality there is no such thing as time. It is rather motion. As human beings differ in their view it is not surprising to find people having different time concepts. The future is unknown, the past although known is transformed to a dream and the present (what is it?) a passing from to..Most human concept of time indeed places future in front and past behind. Still whether you place something unknown in front and something known but over behind doesn’t change much because both are beyond reach. So what is future (front) to some can be past (behind) to the other. Other reasons can be cultural or religious.


All life is a matter of taking decisions. We make decisions on a daily basis. There are big decisions which we take every now and then. Little harmless decisions are made several times a day. Decisions are made in the present for the future. They can be made either:


1. Instant/spontaneous decisions or when we make promises: Will

I am hungry – I’ll get a sandwich.

I am cold – I’ll get a pullover.

2. Planned decisions going to

I am going to see a film this evening

3. Decisions already made or arranged for (agreement) Present Continuous

We are moving house next month.

Lexically with infinitive

Decisions can be made lexically as a substitute:

We plan to build a house

We intend to think it over

Time and Change

Change is part of life since life is dynamic (involves change). Change has even become a problem because everything is changing very fast. Change Management is now an established economic concept. English grammar provides different ways of expressing change. Here are two of them (if you know more do let us know):

1. Present continuous: changes and processes underway provided the verb is dynamic:

More and more people are working from home.

2. Present perfect simple: Changes complete now

They have opened a new restaurant.

Time and frequency Markers with different tenses in alphabetical order:


1. Present simple: He always watches TV (neutral habit – no personal feeling involved)

2. Present continuous: He is always smoking. (habit + disapproval /annoyance)

He is always watching TV (ie I don’t like it)

3. Present perfect simple: we have always had visitiors

For /since see earlier postings in this thread


1. Past simple: I just came to see you (only)

2. Present perfect: I have just eaten


I. Present simple: I never smoke (habit)

2. Present perfect simple: I have never smoked.


Past simple: She arrived today.

Present perfect: I haven’t seen him today

Present continuous: I usually drink tea but today I am drinking coffee.

The way we talk about Space we conceptualize Time (conceptual metaphor theory). Time is conceptualized metaphorically through mappings onto space by using two metaphors:

1. The ego moving metaphor

2. The time moving metaphor

Mixing Memory

The following text is a quote from “Mixing Memory”:

Consider the following example:

Next Wednesday’s meeting has been moved forward two days.

When is the meeting now? Chances are, you answered Friday, but some of you may also have answered Monday. The reason is, in English, the statement is ambiguous. This is because in the ego-moving metaphor, we are moving toward the future. Examples of this include, “We’re coming up on the first day of summer,” and “We’ll soon reach the end of June.” In the time-moving metaphor, the future is moving toward us. For example, “The Fourth of July is fast approaching,” or “The deadline will soon be upon us.”

If we’re using the ego-moving metaphor, then we’ll interpret the ambiguous sentence above as meaning that the meeting has been moved to Friday, because Friday is forward for us, but if we’re using the time-moving metaphor, we’ll interpret it as meaning Monday, because Monday is in front of time moving for us. In the typical experiment, some display of, say, a person moving toward an object (ego-moving) or an object moving towards a person (time-moving) will prime the corresponding metaphor, and result in individuals tending to answer Friday or Monday, respectively. In English, time-space metaphors are always on the horizontal axis: things in the past or future are either behind or ahead, but never above or below.

Ego-moving metaphor:

Past—–Present —– Future (Moving forward: Ego-future and Infinitive)

Time-moving metaphor

Past……Present——Future (Moving backward: Time-future and Gerund)

The way we talk about Space we conceptualize Time (conceptual metaphor theory). Time is conceptualized metaphorically through mappings onto space by using two metaphors:

1. The ego moving metaphor

2. The time moving metaphor

The following text is a quote from “Mixing Memory”:

Consider the following example:

Next Wednesday’s meeting has been moved forward two days.

When is the meeting now? Chances are, you answered Friday, but some of you may also have answered Monday. The reason is, in English, the statement is ambiguous. This is because in the ego-moving metaphor, we are moving toward the future. Examples of this include, “We’re coming up on the first day of summer,” and “We’ll soon reach the end of June.” In the time-moving metaphor, the future is moving toward us. For example, “The Fourth of July is fast approaching,” or “The deadline will soon be upon us.”

If we’re using the ego-moving metaphor, then we’ll interpret the ambiguous sentence above as meaning that the meeting has been moved to Friday, because Friday is forward for us, but if we’re using the time-moving metaphor, we’ll interpret it as meaning Monday, because Monday is in front of time moving for us. In the typical experiment, some display of, say, a person moving toward an object (ego-moving) or an object moving towards a person (time-moving) will prime the corresponding metaphor, and result in individuals tending to answer Friday or Monday, respectively. In English, time-space metaphors are always on the horizontal axis: things in the past or future are either behind or ahead, but never above or below.

Ego-moving metaphor:

Past—–Present —– Future (Moving forward: Ego-future and Infinitive)

Time-moving metaphor

Past……Present——Future (Moving backward: Time-future and Gerund)

Time-space metaphor is not always on the horizontal axis. It can move up and down on the vertical axis as well.

Place-Time Order

Because English lost its Germanic endings (s III person singular being the only exception: he/she/it eats) its word order was frozen (became rigid). When adverbs of place and time for example come next to each other the order is always place time:

I went home yesterday. Not I went yesterday home

This order can be violated for reasons of emphasis.

Even when making question the English don’t touch the word order:

You speak English. Statement

Do you speak English?

The statement order is not changed with the help of do for making question.

The old Germanic way can be seen in questions like:

Who came here? What happened?

So nominative, accusative or dative distinctions are lost except for a handful pronouns:

He – him

She – her

They – them

Even whom objective relative pronoun or question word has made way for “who”.

Borderline of Correct and Incorrect

There is nothing which is correct or incorrect in language. Terms like correct and incorrect are relative and only make only sense in relation to specific contexts. Something may be correct in one time or setting but be totally unacceptable or inappropriate in another. Often what is “correct” seems to be the opposite of “informal/conversationalist style”. Sometimes the degree of informality is so high that it constitutes a borderline to incorrectness. There are examples in many languages as for example the use of dative (which is still regarded as incorrect) instead of genitive in German. This informal/conversationalist style will stay peripheral for some time until it is able to make the first step to informality and then the next step to standard. This was the case with words like “ain’t” in American English in 1966 when it was adopted by Webster. A lot of people complained and were afraid that this will degenerate American English and will support chaos. The contraction “ain’t” has had an interesting evolution but is still restricted to very informal use. Consider “is not”, which becomes “isn’t”, and “are not”, which becomes “aren’t”. What the contraction is of “am I not”? We usually say, illogically, “aren’t I?” and perhaps some Irish and Scottish speakers say “amn’t I?”; in Victorian English it was “ain’t I?”. The trouble was that it was then extended to all persons of “to be” and “to have”, was therefore considered sloppy and passed out of “correct” English usage. For instance a continuum or a scale is used when showing the degree of intensity, size (very large – large – small – very small), age and probability. A degree of formality on a scale or a continuum can show how words move both ways ie ascending or descending order from extreme formal to extreme informal and the other way round. Usually the following process is observed:

Incorrect – very informal – natural – standard – formal – very formal – old fashioned – outdated.

However, this process is not a flow chart of making a product and cannot be predicted so easily. It is as fickle as those human beings who speak it. The register of formality or regionalism (Ame vs. BE) cannot keep its position on the scale permanently. People often forget that language is organic and thus subject to change. This is language dynamism comparable with the process of human birth and death.